|Author||:||William B. Guenther|
The present work is designed to provide a practical introduction to aqueous equilibrium phenomena for both students and research workers in chemistry, biochemistry, geochemistry, and interdisciplinary environmental fields. The pedagogical strategy I have adopted makes heavy use of detailed examples of problem solving from real cases arising both in laboratory research and in the study of systems occurring in nature. The procedure starts with mathematically complete equations that will provide valid solutions of equilibrium problems, instead of the traditional approach through approximate concentrations and idealized, infinite-dilution assumptions. There is repeated emphasis on the use of corrected, conditional equilibrium constants and on the checking of numerical results by substitution in complete equations and/or against graphs of species distributions. Graphical methods of calculation and display are used extensively because of their value in clarifying equilibria and in leading one quickly to valid numerical approximations.
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